Thermodynamic Transfer
Endothermic vs. Exothermic Reactions
Digital Thermometers
The Kelvin Temperature Scale
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
Fahrenheit/Celsius Temperature Scales
Optical Pyrometer
Radiation Pyrometer Temperature Sensors
Ratio Pyrometers
Temperature Emissivity of Non-Blackbodies

Pressure Measurements in Inches of Water Column
Hydrostatic Pressure
Pressure Measurement Scales

The Purge Level Measurement Method
Ultrasonic Sensors
Standard Calibration Procedure
Capacitive Probe Sensors
Conductive Probe Sensors
Displacement Level Sensors

The Reynolds Number
Types of Flow Measurements
Thermal Flowmeters
The Vortex Flowmeter
Orifice Plate Flowmeters
The Spring-and-Diaphragm Actuator
Air-to-Open/Air-to-Close Valves
The Time-of-Flight Flowmeter
Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Hydrocarbon Gas Sensor
Combustible Gas Detectors
pH Measurements
Humidity Measurements
Controlling pH

How Pressure Changes Boiling Temperature
The Dynamic Response of a Closed-Loop System
On-Off Control of a Feedback System
The Time Proportioning Operational Amplifier
Time Proportioning Application

Reading a P&ID Loop
P&ID Tag Numbers
Line Symbols
P&ID General Instrument Symbols
PID Controls

Integral Reset Setting
Derivative Control Mode Analogy
PID Control
Proportional Control Amplifier
Integral Contol Mode Application
Tuning & Calibration

Standard Transmission Signals
Standard Calibration Procedure
Continuous Cycling Tuning Example
Ziegler-Nichols Continuous Cycling Tuning Calculations
Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Tuning Calculations
Ziegler-Nichols Reaction Curve Process Identification Procedure
Reaction Curve Tuning Example
Ziegler-Nichols Continuous Cycling Tuning Method
Advanced Controls

The Feed-Forward Control System
Ratio Control